WSU Extension

Hortsense

Weeds
 
Annual bluegrass 
Barnyardgrass 
Bentgrass, creeping 
Bermudagrass 
Birdfoot Trefoil 
Bittercress (Shotweed, Hairy bittercress) 
Bittersweet nightshade (European bittersweet) 
Black medic 
Blackberry (Himalayan, Evergreen, Pacific) 
Blue mustard (Purple mustard, Tenella mustard) 
Brackenfern, western 
Buffalobur 
Bull thistle 
Buttercup, creeping 
Butterfly bush 
Canada thistle 
Catchweed bedstraw (Cleavers) 
Catsear, common (False dandelion) 
Chickweed, common and mouseear 
Clover 
Comfrey 
Crabgrass 
Creeping Jenny 
Dandelion 
Dock (Curly, Broadleaf) 
Dodder 
Downy brome (Cheatgrass, Downy chess) 
Dwarf mistletoes 
English daisy (Lawn daisy) 
English ivy 
Field bindweed (Wild morningglory) 
Field pennycress (Fanweed) 
Flixweed 
Foxtail (Green, Yellow, Bristly) 
Garden loosestrife 
Giant hogweed 
Goldenrods 
Ground ivy 
Groundsel, common 
Hawkweeds 
Hedge bindweed 
Henbit 
Herb Robert (Robert geranium, stinky Bob) 
Horsetails (Scouringrush) 
Horseweed (Marestail) 
Knapweeds 
Knotweeds (Bohemian, Giant, Japanese, Himalayan) 
Kochia 
Lambsquarters, common 
Lesser celandine 
Liverworts 
Mallow, common (Cheeseweed, Buttonweed) 
Nightshades 
Oxalis (Creeping woodsorrel) 
Parrotfeather and Eurasian watermilfoil 
Pineappleweed 
Plantain (Broadleaf, Buckhorn) 
Poison hemlock 
Poison ivy and Poison oak 
Pokeweed 
Prickly lettuce (China lettuce) 
Prostrate knotweed 
Puncturevine (Tackweed, Goathead) 
Purple deadnettle (Red deadnettle) 
Purple loosestrife (Purple lythrum) 
Purslane, common 
Quackgrass 
Red sorrel (Sheep sorrel) 
Redroot pigweed (Rough pigweed) 
Redstem filaree (Stork's bill, Crane's bill) 
Reed canarygrass 
Russian thistle (Tumbleweed) 
Ryegrass, annual (Italian ryegrass) 
Salsify (Goatsbeard) 
Scotch broom 
Shepherd's-purse 
Smartweeds 
Sowthistle, annual and perennial 
Speedwells 
Spurges (Prostrate spurges) 
St. Johnswort, common (Goatweed, Klamathweed) 
Stinging nettle 
Tansy ragwort 
Tumblemustard (Jim Hill mustard) 
Velvetgrass (Common velvetgrass) 
Velvetleaf 
Water primrose 
Waterhemlock, western 
Wild carrot (Queen Anne's lace) 
Yellow nutsedge 



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Caption: Birdfoot Trefoil
Photo by: Albert Herring CC 2.0
  
Weeds : Birdfoot Trefoil : Lotus corniculatus
(revision date: 4/7/2021)

Family: Fabaceae
Cycle: Perennial
Plant Type: Broadleaf

Use Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for successful weed management.

Biology
Lotus corniculatus can be identified by its unique shaped leaves that alternate on the main stem, are trifoliate (3 terminal leaflets at the apex), and have two smaller wing-like leaves at the base of the leaves. The leaves are a distinct bluish-green color. The shape of the leaves can be oval or oblong with a point at the apex. The main stem is flat (partially square) shaped on the top and slightly rounded at the base. The stem can be partially hairy or smooth. Large bright yellow flowers in clover-like clusters form in late June through the fall. Fruit develops resembling pea pods arranged in the shape of a bird’s foot.
Habitat
Birdsfoot trefoil, a native to Europe and Asia, is a low-growing perennial broadleaf weed that is often found in low fertility soils. It is drought and salt tolerant. It germinates from seed mainly in the spring and quickly spreads into large colonies by developing stolons and rhizomes during the fall.

Management Options


Non-Chemical Management
  • Physical control, by hand-pulling or hoeing when populations are small, removing as much below-ground tissue as possible to prevent regrowth.
  • Maintain a healthy lawn with proper mowing heights, irrigation, and fertilization with nitrogen.
  • Adequate watering to prevent drying in drought conditions.
Select non-chemical management options as your first choice!

Chemical Management

Read the labels carefully for safety and to make sure the product is suitable for your situation.

Landscape areas
  • products containing triclopyr
Turf areas
  • triclopyr
  • 2,4-D + MCPP + dicamba
Bare ground areas
  • triclopyr
Images

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Caption: Birdfoot Trefoil
Photo by: Albert Herring CC 2.0
Caption: Birdfoot Trefoil
Photo by: Acabashi CC 4.0