WSU Extension

Hortsense

Weeds
 
Annual bluegrass 
Barnyardgrass 
Bentgrass, creeping 
Bermudagrass 
Bittercress (Shotweed, Hairy bittercress) 
Bittersweet nightshade (European bittersweet) 
Black medic 
Blackberry (Himalayan, Evergreen, Pacific) 
Blue mustard (Purple mustard, Tenella mustard) 
Brackenfern, western 
Buffalobur 
Bull thistle 
Buttercup, creeping 
Canada thistle 
Catchweed bedstraw (Cleavers) 
Catsear, common (False dandelion) 
Chickweed, common and mouseear 
Clover 
Comfrey 
Crabgrass 
Dandelion 
Dock (Curly, Broadleaf) 
Dodder 
Downy brome (Cheatgrass, Downy chess) 
Dwarf mistletoes 
English daisy (Lawn daisy) 
English ivy 
Field bindweed (Wild morningglory) 
Field pennycress (Fanweed) 
Flixweed 
Foxtail (Green, Yellow, Bristly) 
Garden loosestrife 
Giant hogweed 
Goldenrods 
Groundsel, common 
Hawkweeds 
Hedge bindweed 
Henbit 
Herb Robert (Robert geranium, stinky Bob) 
Horsetails (Scouringrush) 
Horseweed (Marestail) 
Knapweeds 
Knotweeds (Bohemian, Giant, Japanese, Himalayan) 
Kochia 
Lambsquarters, common 
Liverworts 
Mallow, common (Cheeseweed, Buttonweed) 
Nightshades 
Oxalis (Creeping woodsorrel) 
Parrotfeather and Eurasian watermilfoil 
Pineappleweed 
Plantain (Broadleaf, Buckhorn) 
Poison hemlock 
Poison ivy and Poison oak 
Prickly lettuce (China lettuce) 
Prostrate knotweed 
Puncturevine (Tackweed, Goathead) 
Purple deadnettle (Red deadnettle) 
Purple loosestrife (Purple lythrum) 
Purslane, common 
Quackgrass 
Red sorrel (Sheep sorrel) 
Redroot pigweed (Rough pigweed) 
Redstem filaree (Stork's bill, Crane's bill) 
Reed canarygrass 
Russian thistle (Tumbleweed) 
Ryegrass, annual (Italian ryegrass) 
Salsify (Goatsbeard) 
Scotch broom 
Shepherd's-purse 
Smartweeds 
Sowthistle, annual and perennial 
Speedwells 
Spurges (Prostrate spurges) 
St. Johnswort, common (Goatweed, Klamathweed) 
Stinging nettle 
Tansy ragwort 
Tumblemustard (Jim Hill mustard) 
Velvetgrass (Common velvetgrass) 
Velvetleaf 
Water primrose 
Waterhemlock, western 
Yellow nutsedge 



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Caption: Black nightshade fruit
Photo by: R. Parker
  
Weeds : Nightshades : Solanum spp.
(revision date: 6/9/2014)

Family: Solanaceae
Cycle: Annual/Perennial
Plant Type: Broadleaf

Use Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for successful weed management.

Biology
Nightshades are annual or perennial taprooted plants that spread by seeds. They usually have spreading, branched stems to three feet tall. The alternate leaves are broad with pointed tips. They grow one to three inches long and typically have wavy margins. Leaves and stems generally appear smooth and hairless to somewhat hairy. Silverleaf nightshade (Solanum eleagnifolium) has dense, short hairs that give it a silvery appearance. The star-shaped flowers are borne in clusters in the leaf axils and are white to bluish with yellow centers (somewhat resembling tomato flowers in shape). The round to oval berries are green when unripe and, depending on species, yellow, orange, red or purplish-black when ripe. The small green calyx at the base of the fruit is inconspicuous and typically does not enclose or cup the berry. Black nightshade (S. nigrum) is a host for the Colorado potato beetle. SPECIAL INFORMATION: All parts of nightshades including foliage and fruit are toxic. In WASHINGTON and OREGON, silverleaf nightshade is designated as a Class 'A' noxious weed. Eradication or intensive control is REQUIRED by law. In addition, it is on the Washington and Oregon noxious weed quarantine lists, which prohibit sale, purchase, and transport of plants, seeds, and plant parts. Consult your local Noxious Weed Control Board for more information.
Habitat
Nightshades are a weed of waste places and fields on rich soils. They frequently grow in the shade and easily invade disturbed sites. They are not usually a problem in maintained lawn and turfgrass.

Management Options

Non-Chemical Management
  • Maintaining a healthy planting or turf area to provide competition will prevent weed establishment.
  • Cultivation (rototilling or hoeing) will effectively eliminate plants.
  • Reduce weed infestation by handpulling weeds.
  • Mowing to prevent seed production is a very effective means of management. In lawns, mowing regularly at the proper height for the grass species may help minimize weed growth and invasion.
  • Careful digging is useful to manage weed populations. However, digging can carry undesirable weed seed to the surface and foster further germination.
Select non-chemical management options as your first choice!

Chemical Management

Apply according to label directions. Glyphosate and glufosinate products should be applied as spot treatments only! NOTE: Some ingredients listed here are only available in combination. Read the label carefully on combination products to make sure the product is suitable for your specific situation.

Landscape areas
  • glyphosate
  • glufosinate
Turf areas
  • products containing 2,4-D
  • 2,4-D + MCPP + dicamba
Bare ground areas
  • glyphosate
Images

+ Show larger images

 
Caption: Black nightshade fruit
Photo by: R. Parker
Caption: Black nightshade flower and leaves
Photo by: R. Parker
Caption: Black nightshade line drawing
Photo by: Ciba Geigy
Caption: Cutleaf nightshade
Photo by: R. Parker
Caption: Cutleaf nightshade with fruit
Photo by: D.G. Swan
Caption: Cutleaf nightshade seedling
Photo by: D.G. Swan
Caption: Hairy nightshade flowers
Photo by: D.G. Swan
Caption: Hairy nightshade flowers and fruit
Photo by: T.W. Miller
Caption: Hairy nightshade whole plant
Photo by: T.W. Miller