WSU Extension

Hortsense

Apple
 
Disease
Anthracnose and Bull's-eye rot 
Bitter pit 
Burrknot 
Crown and collar rot 
Crown gall 
Cytospora canker 
Fire blight 
Fruit russeting 
Nectria canker (European canker) 
Nectria twig blight (Coral spot) 
Perennial canker (Bull's-eye rot) 
Phytophthora fruit rot 
Powdery mildew 
Scab 
Virus diseases 
Insect
Aphids 
Apple ermine moth 
Apple maggot 
Apple-and-thorn skeletonizer 
Brown marmorated stink bug 
Codling moth 
Cutworms and armyworms 
Earwigs 
Fruittree leafroller 
Leafhoppers 
Leafrollers 
Lecanium scale 
San Jose scale 
Spider mites 
Tent caterpillars 
Tentiform leafminer 



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Caption: Overwintering lecanium scale on apricot
Photo by: M. Bush
  
Apple : Lecanium scale
(revision date: 4/11/2018)


Biology
Lecanium scales are shiny brown insects found on twigs. Adults are 1/8"-1/4" in diameter and roughly turtle-shaped. They may have light markings or appear somewhat waxy. Crawlers (immature scales) are flatter. Scales produce large amounts of honeydew, a sweet, sticky material which may attract ants or become covered with a growth of dark sooty mold. Branches with heavy scale infestations may be wilted, yellowish, or show other signs of stress. New growth may be stunted or lacking. Lecanium scale is a common pest in the landscape, infesting many plants including dogwood, maple, rhododendron, willow, and most fruit trees.
Management Options


Non-Chemical Management
  • Natural enemies such as ladybird beetles and green lacewings help control scale populations. Avoid use of broad-spectrum insecticides which kill these and other beneficial insects.
  • Control honeydew-feeding ants which may protect scales from predators.
  • Hand-wipe to help control minor infestations.
  • Prune and destroy heavily infested branches, when practical.
Select non-chemical management options as your first choice!

Chemical Management

Oils are effective in the dormant or delayed dormant period. Apply spray oils March to April. Use superior type oil sprays only on overwintering nymphs. Homeowners should not make foliar applications to trees over 10 ft tall. Consult a commercial pesticide applicator for treatment of trees and shrubs over 10 ft. tall.

Listed below are examples of pesticides that are legal in Washington. Always read and follow all label directions.
  • Ortho Volck Oil Spray Dormant Season Insect Killer Conc
    Active ingredient: oil/pet distillate  |  EPA reg no: 239-16
  • R-T-U Year-Round Spray Oil
    Active ingredient: oil/pet distillate  |  EPA reg no: 6218-78
  • Safer Brand Garden Defense Multi-Purpose Spray Conc [Organic]
    Active ingredient: clarified hydrophobic extract of neem oil  |  EPA reg no: 70051-2-42697
  • This list may not include all products registered for this use.
Images

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Caption: Overwintering lecanium scale on apricot
Photo by: M. Bush
Caption: Lecanium scales
Photo by: R.S. Byther